What can go wrong with inhaling too much formaldehyde?

  • When should formaldehyde be removed (去除甲醛服務)?

    At very low concentrations (eg, 0.3 ppm), previously susceptible individuals may develop severe bronchoconstriction. Bronchoconstriction may begin immediately or be delayed by 3 to 4 hours; effects may worsen up to 20 hours after exposure and persist for several days.

    Exposure to certain chemical irritants can lead to reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS), a type of chemical- or irritant-induced asthma.

    Because of the relatively small diameter of the airway, children may be more vulnerable to caustic agents than adults.

     

    Children may be more vulnerable because of the relative increase in minute ventilation per kilogram and failure to evacuate an area in time when exposed. For example: 

    Breathe

    Even relatively low concentrations of formaldehyde can quickly cause nose and throat irritation, leading to coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Higher exposures resulted in marked inflammation of the lower airways, resulting in swelling of the throat, inflammation of the trachea and bronchi, narrowing of the bronchi, inflammation of the lungs, and fluid accumulation in the lungs. Lung damage may continue to worsen 12 hours or more after exposure.

     

    metabolism

    The accumulation of formaldehyde can lead to an acid-base imbalance in the anion gap. If formalin is ingested, the absorption of the methanol stabilizer may cause an imbalance and may result in an osmotic gap as well as an anion gap.

    Immunology

    In previously sensitized individuals, inhalation and skin contact may cause various skin disorders, asthma-like symptoms, allergic reactions, and rarely hemolysis. Children's immune systems continue to develop after birth, so children may be more susceptible to certain chemicals.

    gastrointestinal tract

    Ingestion of aqueous formaldehyde can cause severe corrosive damage to the esophagus and stomach. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, inflammation of the stomach, and ulcers and perforations of the oropharynx, epiglottis, esophagus, and stomach may occur. Both formaldehyde and methanol stabilizers are readily absorbed and may cause systemic toxicity.